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Sociology: The Core, 6/e
Michael Hughes, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
Carolyn J. Kroehler
James W. Vander Zanden, The Ohio State University (Emeritus)

Deviance and Crime

Multiple Choice Quiz


Behavior that a considerable number of people view as reprehensible and intolerable is called:

Which of the following statements is true according to the sociological study of deviance?
A)Deviant behavior is an anomaly in social life.
B)Deviance is a property conferred upon particular behaviors by social definitions.
C)Deviance exists independently of a culture's norms.
D)none of the above

Deviance is dysfunctional in that it:
A)can impair and undermine organized social life.
B)increases our willingness to play our roles.
C)increases our willingness to contribute to the larger social enterprise.
D)enhances our trust of one another.

Functionalists view social control as:
A)operating to favor powerful groups at the expense of others.
B)an indispensable functional requirement for social survival.
C)a source of social chaos.
D)both b and c

Which of the following is NOT one of the three main types of social control processes?
A)conformity with norms
B)internalization of norms
C)the structure of social experience.
D)formal and informal sanctions.

The social condition in which people find it difficult to guide their behavior by norms they experience as weak, unclear, or conflicting is called:
A)social disorganization.
D)none of the above

It is very important to Sammi to do well in school, so she regularly cheats on tests. According to Merton's structural strain theory, Sammi is a(n):

Fred is a very intelligent student. Last year he was on the honor roll. This year he began hanging out with friends who spend more time playing video games than studying; they routinely earn C's and D's. Over time, Fred slowly stops doing his homework and turning in work for extra credit. He drops out of his honors classes, and his grades drop from mostly A's to C's. Which theory of deviance best explains what has happened here?
A)structural strain theory
B)social control theory
C)differential association theory
D)Each of these theories explains the situation equally well.

Conflict theorists:
A)emphasize that the values of society serve all members of society.
B)see the capitalist ruling class as protecting the masses.
C)argue that criminal acts are acts which the ruling class brands as criminal.
D)None of the above reflects the thinking of conflict theorists.

Labeling theorists:
A)focus on why individuals engage in deviant behavior.
B)contend that some acts, such as rape, are inherently criminal.
C)contend that labeling people as deviant has no effect on their behavior.
D)contend that, in many cases, those labeled deviant evolve a deviant identity and pursue a career of deviance.

In their study of deviance, control theory advocates ask:
A)Why are people deviant?
B)Why are people not deviant?
C)How does labeling contribute to deviance?
D)How does structural strain contribute to deviance?

Hirschi argues that young people's strong four-part bond to society favorably influences their social conformity. Which of the following is NOT one of the four parts of this bond?

In order for a deviant act to be considered a crime:
A)the state must undertake a political process of criminalizing it.
B)it must be committed by someone labeled a criminal.
C)it must involve the violation of a person or property.
D)the majority of the population must consider the act criminal.

Which of the following is NOT part of the criminal justice system?

The FBI annually reports on eight types of crime in its Uniform Crime Reports. Collectively, these offenses are known as:
A)violent crimes against people.
B)crimes against property.
C)index crimes.
D)uniform crime data points.

White-collar and corporate crimes:
A)are committed by relatively affluent people, often in the course of business activities.
B)are not very costly compared to the dollar cost of other crimes.
C)are crimes the average person is less likely to experience than street crime.
D)usually result in severe punishment for those who are caught.

Crime committed by the government includes:
A)the U.S. Army's massacre of 300 Sioux at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
B)the 1993 Los Angeles riots.
C)President George Bush's tax increase, despite his promise of "no new taxes."
D)none of the above.

Official crime statistics such as those included in the Uniform Crime Reports:
A)focus on crimes most often committed by middle-aged people.
B)focus on crimes most often committed by middle-class people.
C)overestimate the extent of organized crime.
D)do not regularly include data on white-collar crime.

In the United States, the incarceration rate:
A)has begun to decline.
B)is the highest in the world.
C)is well below prison capacity.
D)both a and b

Selective confinement:
A)cannot keep "hard core" criminals off the street.
B)does keep "hard core" criminals off the street.
C)is an effort to address the problem of one-time criminals.
D)maximizes effective use of prison bed space.