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Traditions and Encounters Book Cover
Traditions and Encounters, 2/e
Jerry H. Bentley, University of Hawai'i
Herbert F. Ziegler, University of Hawai'i


Table of Contents

Part I The Early Complex Societies, 3500 to 500 B.C.E.
Chapter 1: BEFORE HISTORY
The Evolution of Homo Sapiens
The Hominids
Homo Sapiens
Paleolithic Society
Economy and Society of Hunting and Gathering Peoples
Paleolithic Culture
The Neolithic Era and the Transition to Agriculture
The Origins of Agriculture
Early Agriculture Society
Neolithic Culture
The Origins of Urban Life
Chapter 2: EARLY SOCIETIES IN SOUTHWEST ASIA AND THE INDO-EUROPEAN MIGRATIONS
The Quest for Order
Mesopotamia: "The Land Between the Rivers"
The Course of Empire
The Later Mesopotamian Empires
The Formation of a Complex Society and Sophisticated Cultural Traditions
Economic Specialization and Trade
The Emergence of a Stratified Patriarchal Society
The Development of Written Cultural Traditions
The Broader Influence of Mesopotamian Society
Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews
The Phoenicians
The Indo-European Migrations
Indo-European Origins
Indo-European Expansion and Its Effects
Chapter 3: EARLY AFRICAN SOCIETIES AND THE BANTU MIGRATIONS
Early Agricultural Society in Africa
Climatic Change and the Development of Agriculture in Africa
Egypt and Nubia: "Gifts of the Nile"
The Unification of Egypt
Turmoil and Empire
The Formation of Complex Societies and Sophisticated Cultural Traditions
The Emergence of Cities and Stratified Societies
Economic Specialization and Trade
Early Writing in the Nile Valley
The Development of Organized Religious Traditions
Bantu Migrations and Early Agricultural Societies of Sub-Saharan Africa
The Dynamics of Bantu Expansion
Early Agricultural Societies of Sub-Saharan Africa
Chapter 4: EARLY SOCIETIES IN SOUTH ASIA
Harrapan Society
Foundations of Harappan Society
Harappan Society and Culture
The Indo-European Migrations and Early Aryan India
The Aryans and India
Origins of the Caste System
The Development of Patriarchal Society
Religion in the Vedic Age
Aryan Religion
The Blending of Aryan and Dravidian Values
Chapter 5: EARLY SOCIETY IN EAST ASIA
Political Organization in Early China
Early Agricultural Society and the Xia Dynasty
The Shang Dynasty
The Zhou Dynasty
Society and Family in Ancient China
The Social Order
Family and Patriarchy
Early Chinese Writing and Cultural Development
Oracle Bones and Early Chinese Writing
Thought and Literature in Ancient China
Ancient China and the Larger World
Chinese Cultivators and Nomadic Peoples of Central Asia
The Southern Expansion of Chinese Society
Chapter 6: EARLY SOCIETIES IN THE AMERICAS AND OCEANIA
Early Societies in Mesoamerica
The Olmecs
Heirs of the Olmecs: The Maya
Maya Society and Religion
Heirs of the Olmecs: Teoihuacan
Early Societies of South America
Early Andean Society and the Chavin Cult
Early Andean States: Mochica
Early Societies of Oceania
Early Societies in Australia and New Guinea
The Peopling of the Pacific Islands
PART II: THE FORMATION OF CLASSICAL SOCIETIES, 500 B.C.E. TO 500 C.E.
Chapter 7: THE EMPIRES OF PERSIA
The Rise and Fall of the Persian Empires
The Achaemenid Empire
Decline and Fall of the Achaemenid Empire
The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanid Empires
Imperial Society and Economy
Social Development in Classical Persia
Economic Foundations of Classical Persia
Religions of Salvation in Classical Persian Society
Zarathustra and His Faith
Religions of Salvation in a Cosmopolitan Society
Chapter 8: THE UNIFICATION OF CHINA
In Search of Political and Social Order
Confucius and His School
Daoism
Legalism
The Unification of China
The Qin Dynasty
The Early Han Dynasty
From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder
Productivity and Prosperity during the Former Han
Economic and Social Difficulties
The Later Han Dynasty
Chapter 9: STATE, SOCIETY, AND THE QUEST FOR SALVATION IN INDIA
The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India
The Mauryan Dynasty and the Temporary Unification of India
The Emergence of Regional Kingdoms and the Revival of Empire
Economic Development and Social Distinctions
Towns and Trade
Family Life and the Caste System
Religions of Salvation in Classical India
Jainism and the Challenge to the Established Cultural Order
Early Buddhism
Mahayana Buddhism
The Emergence of Popular Hinduism
Chapter 10: MEDITERRANEAN SOCIETY: THE GREEK PHASE
Early Development of Greek Society
Minoan and Mycenaean Societies
The World of the Polis
Greece and the Larger World
Greek Colonization
Conflict with Persia and Its Results
The Macedonians and the Coming of Empire
The Hellenistic Empires
The Fruits of Trade: Greek Economy and Society
Trade and the Integration of the Mediterranean Basin
Family and Society
The Cultural Life of Classical Greece
Rational Thought and Philosophy
Popular Religion and Greek Drama
Hellenistic Philosophy and Religion
Chapter 11: MEDITERRANEAN SOCIETY: THE ROMAN PHASE
From Kingdom to Republic
The Etruscans and Rome
The Roman Republic and Its Constitution
The Expansion of the Republic
From Republic to Empire
Imperial Expansion and Domestic Problems
The Foundation of Empire
Continuing Expansion and Integration of the Empire
Economy and Society in the Roman Mediterranean
Trade and Urbanization
Family and Society in Roman Times
The Cosmopolitan Mediterranean
Greek Philosophy and Religions of Salvation
Judaism and Early Christianity
Chapter 12: CROSS-CULTURAL EXCHANGE ON THE SILK ROADS
Long Distance Trade and the Silk Roads Network
Trade Networks of the Hellenistic Era
The Silk Roads
Cultural and Biological Exchanges Along the Silk Roads
The Spread of Buddhism and Hinduism
The Spread of Christianity
The Spread of Manichaeism
The Spread of Epidemic Disease
China After the Han Dynasty
Internal Decay of the Han State
Cultural Change in Post-Han China
The Fall of the Roman Empire
Internal Decay in the Roman Empire
Germanic Invasions and the Fall of the Western Roman Empire
Cultural Change in the Late Roman Empire
PART III: THE POST-CLASSICAL ERA, 500 TO 1000 C.E.
Chapter 13: THE COMMONWEALTH OF BYZANTIUM
The Early Byzantine Empire
The Later Roman Empire and Byzantium
Justinian and His Legacy
Islamic Conquests and Byzantine Revival
Byzantium and Western Europe
Byzantine Economy and Society
Rural Economy and Society
Industry and Trade
Urban Life
Classical Heritage and Orthodox Christianity
The Legacy of Classical Greece
The Byzantine Church
Monasticism and Popular Piety
Tensions between Eastern and Western Christianity
The Influence of Byzantium in Eastern Europe
Domestic Problems and Foreign Pressures
Early Relations between Byzantium and Slavic Peoples
Byzantium and Russia
Chapter 14: A NEW SOCIETY: THE EXPANSIVE REALM OF ISLAM
A Prophet and His World
Muhammad and His Message
Muhammad's migration to Medina
The Establishment of Islam in Arabia
The Expansion of Islam
The Early Caliphs and the Umayyad Dynasty
The Abbasid Dynasty
Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World
New Crops, Agricultural Experimentation, and Urban Growth
The Formation of a Hemispheric Trading Zone
The Changing Status of Women
Islamic Values and Cultural Exchanges
The Formation of and Islamic Cultural Tradition
Islam and the Cultural Traditions of Persia, India, and Greece
Chapter 15: THE RESURGENCE OF EMPIRE IN EAST ASIA
The Restoration of centralized Imperial Rule in China
The Sui Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty
The Song Dynasty
The Economic Development of Tang and Song China
Agricultural Development
Technological and Industrial Development
The Emergence of a Market Economy
The Establishment of Buddhism
Neo-Confucianism
Chinese Influence in East Asia
Korea and Vietnam
Early Japan
Medieval Japan
Chapter 16: INDIA AND THE INDIAN OCEAN BASIN
Islamic and Hindu Kingdoms
The Quest for Centralized Imperial Rule
The Introduction of Islam to Northern India
The Hindu Kingdoms of Southern India
Production and Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin
Agriculture in the Monsoon World
Trade and the Economic Development of Southern India
Cross-Cultural Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin
Caste and Society
The Meeting of Hindu and Islamic Traditions
The Development of Hinduism
Islam and Its Appeal
The Influence of Indian Society in Southeast Asia
The States of Southeast Asia
The Arrival of Islam
Chapter 17: THE FOUNDATIONS OF CHRISTIAN SOCIETY IN WESTERN EUROPE
The Quest for Political Order
Germanic Successor States
The Franks and the Temporary Revival of Empire
Decline and Dissolution of the Carolingian Empire
The Establishment of Regional Authorities
Early Medieval Society
Organizing a Decentralized Society
Serfs and Manors
The Economy of Europe
The Formation of Christian Europe
The Politics of Conversion
The Papacy
Monasticism
PART IV AN AGE OF CROSS CULTURAL INTERACTION, 1000 TO 1500 C.E.
18: NOMADIC EMPIRES AND EURASION INTEGRATION
Turkish Migrations and Imperial Expansion
Nomadic Economy and Society
Turkish Empires in Persia, Anatolia, and India
The Mongol Empires
Chinggis Khan and the Making of the Mongol Empire
The Mongol Empires after Chinggis Khan
The Mongols and Eurasion Integration
Decline of the Mongols in Persia and China
After the Mongols
Tamerlane the Whirlwind
The Foundation of the Ottoman Empire
19: STATES AND SOCIETIES OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Effects of Early African Migrations
Agriculture and Population Growth
African Political Organization
Islamic Kingdoms and Empires
Trans-Saharan Trade and Islamic States in West Africa
The Indian Ocean Trade and Islamic States in East Africa
African Society and Cultural Development
Social Classes
African Religion
The Arrival of Christianity and Islam
20: WESTERN EUROPE DURING THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES
The Establishment of Regional States
The Holy Roman Empire
Regional Monarchies in France and England
Regional State in Italy and Iberia
Economic Growth and Social Development
Growth of the Agricultural Economy
The Revival of Towns and Trade
Social Change
European Christianity During the High Middle Ages
Schools, Universities, and Scholastic Theology
Popular Religion
Reform Movements and Popular Heresies
The Medieval Expansion of Europe
Atlantic and Baltic Colonization
The Reconquest of Sicily and Spain
The Crusades
21: WORLDS APART: THE AMERICAS AND OCEANIA
States and Empires in Mesoamerica and North America
The Toltecs and the Mexica
Mexica Society
Mexica Religion
Peoples and Societies of the North
States and Empires in South America
The Coming of the Incas
Inca Society and Religion
The Societies of Oceania
The Nomadic Foragers of Australia
The Development of Pacific Island Societies
22: REACHING OUT: CROSS-CULTURAL INTERACTIONS
Long-Distance Trade and Travel
Patterns of Long-Distance Trade
Political and Diplomatic Travel
Missionary Campaigns
Long-Distance Travel and Cross-Cultural Exchanges
Crisis and Recovery
Bubonic Plague
Recovery in China: The Ming Dynasty
Recovery in Western Europe: State Building
Recovery in Western Europe: The Renaissance
Exploration and Colonization
The Chinese Reconnaissance of the Indian Ocean Basin
European Exploration in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans
PART V: THE ORIGINS OF GLOBAL INTERDEPENDENCE, 1500-1800
Chapter 23:TRANSOCEANIC ENCOUNTERS AND GLOBAL CONNECTIONS
The European Reconnaissance of the World's Oceans
Motives for Exploration
The Technology of Exploration
Voyages of Exploration: From the Mediterranean to the Atlantic
Voyages of Exploration: From the Atlantic to the Pacific
Trade and Conflict in Early Modern Asia
Trading-Post Empires
European Conquests in Southeast Asia
Commercial Rivalries and the Seven Years' War
Global Exchanges
The Columbian Exchange
The Origins of Global Trade
Chapter 24: THE TRANSFORMATION OF EUROPE
The Fragmentation of Western Christendom
The Protestant Reformation
The Catholic Reformation
Witch-Hunts and Religious Wars
The Consolidation of Sovereign States
The Attempted Revival of Empire
The New Monarchs
Constitutional States and Absolute Monarchies
The European States System
Early Capitalist Society
Population Growth and Urbanization
Early Capitalism and Protoindustrialization
Social Change in Early Modern Europe
Science and Enlightenment
The Reconception of the Universe
The Scientific Revolution
The Enlightenment
Chapter 25: NEW WORLDS: THE AMERICAS AND OCEANIA
Colliding Worlds
The Spanish Caribbean
The Conquest of Mexico and Peru
Iberian Empires in the Americas
Settler Colonies in North America
Colonial Society in the Americas
The Formation of Multicultural Societies
Mining and Agricultural in the Spanish Empire
Sugar and Slavery in Portuguese Brazil
Fur Traders and Settlers in North America
Christianity and Native Religions in the Americas
Europeans in the Pacific
Australia and the Larger World
The Pacific Islands and the Larger World
Chapter 26: AFRICA AND THE ATLANTIC WORLD
African Politics and Society in Early Modern Times
The States of West Africa and East Africa
The Kingdoms of Central Africa and South Africa
Islam and Christianity in Early Modern Africa
Social Change in Early Modern Africa
The Atlantic Slave Trade
Foundations of the Slave Trade
Human Cargoes
The Impact of the Slave Trade in Africa
The African Diaspora
Plantation Societies
The Making of African-American Cultural Traditions
The End of the Slave Trade and the Abolition of Slavery
Chapter 27: TRADITION AND CHANGE IN EAST ASIA
The Quest for Political Stability
The Ming Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty
The Son of Heaven and the Scholar Bureaucrats
Economic and Social Changes
The Patriarchal Family
Population Growth and Economic Development
Gentry, Commoners, Soldiers, and "Mean People"
The Confucian Tradition and New Cultural Influences
Neo-Confucianism and Pulp Fiction
The Return of Christianity in China
The Unification of Japan
The Tokugawa Shogunate
Economic and Social Change
Neo-Confucianism and Floating Worlds
Christianity and Dutch Learning
Chapter 28: THE ISLAMIC EMPIRES
Formation of the Islamic Empires
The Ottoman Empire
The Safavid Empire
The Mughal Empire
Imperial Islamic Society
The Dynastic State
Agriculture and Trade
Religious Affairs in the Islamic Empires
Cultural Patronage of the Islamic Emperors
The Empires in Transition
The Deterioration of Imperial Leadership
Economic and Military Decline
Cultural Insularity
Chapter 29: THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE IN EUROPE AND ASIA
Foundations of the Absolutist State
The Gathering of the Russian Land
The Time of Troubles
Westernization and Empires
A Window on the West
The Limits of Westernization
The Russian Empire in Europe
The Russian Empire in Asia
A Society in Tension
Muscovite Society before Westernization
The Growth of Trade and Industry
Cultural Clashes
Crisis in the Church
Westernization and the Enlightenment in Russia
Part VI: AN AGE OF REVOLUTION, INDUSTRY AND EMPIRE, 1750-1914
Chapter 30: REVOLUTIONS AND NATIONAL STATES IN THE ATLANTIC WORLD
Popular Sovereignty and Political Upheaval
Enlightened and Revolutionary Ideas
The American Revolution
The French Revolution
The Reign of Napoleon
The Influence of Revolution
The Haitian Revolution
Wars of Independence in Latin America
The Emergence of Ideologies: Conservatism and Liberalism
Testing the Limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Slavery
Testing the Limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Women's Rights
The Consolidation of National States in Europe
Nations and Nationalism
The Emergence of National Communities
The Unification of Italy and Germany
Chapter 31: THE MAKING OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY
Patterns of Industrialization
Foundations of Industrialization
The Factory System
The Early Spread of Industrialization
Industrial Capitalism
Industrial Society
The Fruits of Industry
Urbanization and Migration
Industry and Society
The Socialist Challenge
Global Effects of Industrialization
The Continuing Spread of Industrialization
The International Division of Labor
Chapter 32: THE AMERICAS IN THE AGE OF INDEPENDENCE
The Building of American States
The United States: Westward Expansion and Civil War
The Canadian Dominion: Independence without War
Latin America: Fragmentation and Political Experimentation
American Economic Development
Migration to the Americas
Economic Expansion in the United States
Canadian Prosperity
Latin American Dependence
American Cultural and Social Diversity
Multicultural Society in the United States
Canadian Cultural Contrasts
Ethnicity, Identity, and Gender in Latin America
Chapter 33: SOCIETIES AT CROSSROADS
The Ottoman Empire in Decline
The Nature of Decline
Reform and Reorganization
The Young Turk Era
The Russian Empire Under Pressure
Military Defeat and Social Reform
Industrialization
Repression and Revolution
The Chinese Empire Under Siege
The Opium War and the Unequal Treaties
The Taiping Rebellion
Reform Frustrated
The Transformation of Japan
From Tokugawa to Meiji
Meiji Reforms
Chapter 34: THE BUILDING OF GLOBAL EMPIRES
Foundations of Empire
Motives of Imperialism
Tools of Empire
European Imperialism
The British Empire in India
Imperialism in Central Asia and Southeast Asia
The Scramble for Africa
European Imperialism in the Pacific
The Emergence of New Imperial Powers
U.S. Imperialism in Latin America and the Pacific
Imperial Japan
Legacies of Imperialism
Empire and Economy
Labor Migrations
Empire and Society
Nationalism and Anticolonial Movements
PART VII: CONTEMPORARY GLOBAL REALIGNMENTS
Chapter 35: THE GREAT WAR: THE WORLD IN UPHEAVAL
The Drift Toward War
Nationalist Aspirations
National Rivalries
Understandings and Alliances
Global War
The Guns of August
Mutual Butchery
Total War: The Home Front
Conflict in East Asia and the Pacific
Battles in Africa and Southwest Asia
The End of the War
Revolution in Russia
U.S. Intervention and Collapse of the Central Powers
The Paris Peace Conference
Challenges to European Preeminence
Chapter 36: AN AGE OF ANXIETY
Probing Cultural Frontiers
Postwar Pessimism
Revolutions in Physics and Psychology
Experimentation in Art and Architecture
Global Depression
The Great Depression
Despair and Government Action
Economic Experimentation
Challenges to the Liberal Order
Communism in Russia
The Fascist Alternative
Italian Fascism
German National Socialism
Struggles for National Identity in Asia
India's Quest for Independence
China's Search for Order
Imperial Japan
Chapter 37: NEW CONFLAGRATIONS: WORLD WAR II
Origins of World War II
Japan's War in China
European Aggression
Total War: The World Under Fire
Blitzkrieg: Germany Conquers Europe
The German Invasion of the Soviet Union
Battles in Asia and the Pacific
Defeat of the Axis Powers
Life During Wartime
Occupation, Collaboration, and Resistance
The Holocaust
Women and the War
Neither Peace Nor War
Postwar Settlements and Cold War
Global Reconstruction and the United Nations
Chapter 38: THE BIPOLAR WORLD
The Formation of a Bipolar World
The Cold War in Europe
Confrontations in Korea and Cuba
Cold War Societies
Challenges to Superpower Hegemony
The People's Republic of China
Détente and the Decline of Superpower Influence
The End of the Cold War
Revolutions in Eastern and Central Europe
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
Toward an Uncertain Future
Chapter 39: THE RETREAT FROM EMPIRE
Independence in Asia
India's "Vivisection": Partitioned Independence
Nationalist Struggles in Vietnam
Arab National States and the Problem of Palestine
Decolonization in Africa
Forcing the French out of North Africa
Black African Nationalism and Independence
Freedom and Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa
After Independence: Long-term Struggles in the Post- Colonial Era
Communism and Democracy in Asia
Islamic Resurgence in Southwest Asia and North Africa
Politics and Economics in Latin America
War and Peace in Sub-Saharan Africa
Chapter 40: A WORLD WITHOUT BORDERS
Economic Growth in Asia
Trading Blocks
Cross-Cultural Exchanges and Global Communications
Global Barbie
Consumption and Cultural Interaction
The Age of Access
Global Problems
Population Pressures and Environmental Degradation
Economic Inequities and Labor Servitude
Global Diseases
International Organizations
Crossing Boundaries
Women's Traditions and Feminist Challenges
Migration
Cross-Cultural Travelers